Wednesday, July 24, 2013


Contract document is a very important document that every personal cannot afford to missed out. Failure to understand the content of this document can lead to essential legal aspect of a contract which in the end will lead to major financial losses. In view of this consequence, it is good to first familiarised ourselves with the standard form of contract. The reason why this is important mainly due to that all contract will be prepared base on standard form of contract. Any extra requirement or specification normally will be added in as special condition of contract.

Base on my observation, most of the personal especially contractor, always neglect this aspect during the tendering process. This missing stage in tendering always resulted to contractor under price or under estimated the actual construction cost. If only this practice had not been skip, there will be lots of unnecessary losses to bare by parties involved. Under priced or under estimated always happened with the lump sum contract where bill of quantity is not provided in the tender document. Usually lump sum contract will only mention on the major works that need to be completed. for example, there is item describe as preliminaries and general, however it was not been elaborate further. For instance, there is no detail item spell out in the bill of quantity such as compliance to DOSH (Department of Occupational Safety and Health) act or environmental act or also compliance to local statutory and regulatory. In actual fact all of this had been spelled out in the standard form of contract.

As construction personal all of the standard form of contract contents and also special condition of contract just cannot been separate from the tendering process. For our further reference please refer to our respective nation or department that we deal with for the standard form of contract. The standard form of contract link that I include here might be useful to us.


Sunday, July 7, 2013


Road construction is a Simple construction works compare to building work. This is mainly due to the reasons that in road construction there is not so many component of works that need to be done.

The major component of the Roadworks are only as listed below.

1. Survey and setting Out.
2. Site clearing
3. Earthwork.
4. Preparation of the Sub-grade.
5. Sub-base
5. Road-Base
6. Laying of Binder course
7. Laying of Wearing course
8. Road marking.
9. Drainage works
10. Road furniture( Signage/Guardrail & etc.)
11. Road marking
12. Bridge (if required under contract)
13.Traffic Lights (if required under contract).

However for building works, there is lots of components that need to be done in order to complete a building. The major component works are as follows;

1. Survey and setting out
3.Piling works.
4.Foundation works.
5. Stump
6. Beam
7. Slab
11. Roof truss
12. Roofing
13. Internal cold water system
14. External water reticulation
15. Sewerage system
16. Internal electrical wiring System
17. External electrical wiring System.
18. Ventilation system
19. Finishing work ( Painting & Tiling )
20. Fencing & gate.
21. Door and windows.
22. Landscaping.
23. ect....

Building work consists of many trades compare to roadwork. For more detail list for the roadworks, please navigate here. This Roadworks scope of work list can be download for free.

Monday, July 1, 2013

Setting Out of Column Vertical Alignment

Column Vertical Alignment is very important in order to construct a straight vertical building. Now a days, setting out of the vertical alignment had been made easy with the advance technology such as leaser beam device. However in the event that the device that you are using is found faulty, do you know how to continue doing your work without the aid of that technology? In order for you to construct a true vertical column, the first thing that you need to get it right is the formwork itself

In view of this kind of situation, it is always good that we know the primitive way of doing it. All that you need are;
1. Measuring tape,
2. string,
3. timber and
4. Plumbob or heavy material that can pull the string straight (downward)

This primitive way does not even require any usage of Spirit Level.

All you need to do is assemble those. The picture below is how you need to assemble all that basic equipment as mention above. As mention earlier, to get a straight vertical column, first you need your formwork to set correctly. Hence from the picture shown, you can always replace the reinforce concrete column with your fabricated formwork. Once you get your vertical alignment correct, you can secure your formwork from moving. The same goes if you are installing timber type column.

How do you know that your column is vertically straight? What you need to know is the measurement of X1 is the same measurement for X2 and measurement for Y1 having the same measurement value as Y2.

Basic reinforce concrete beam formwork component.

Reinforce concrete structure when constructed using conventional method is as easy as industrial building system. The basic is always about Setting out, formwork, concreting work, bar bending work and installation of each of these component. All it takes is practice and practice until perfect. Below is picture of basic formwork component. All component are built with timber.