Showing posts with label Construction Technology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Construction Technology. Show all posts

Monday, April 10, 2017

Project Quality Plan (PQP)

Project Quality Plan is a quality control manual that describe how the quality control of the construction works is going to be executed. Since it is a manual that going to be a reference document all of the construction personnel especially the top management, the content of the manual shall be able to covered all aspect of the quality control task.

As written earlier in the article "Quality Control in Construction works" , the content shall consist of the followings but not limited to the list below.

Section A : General Information
A1. Project information
A2. Project brief,
A3. Project locality and site utilization plan,
A4. Work program
A5. Quality control Organisation Chart
A6. Job Description

Section B: Document Control
B1: Document control Procedure

Section C : Quality Control
C1. Inspection and test plan
C2. Procedure and method of Inspection and testing
C3. Quality assurance and quality control forms and records
C4. Construction work method statement

1. Project Information
Project information and project brief shall describe the general information of the project such as title of the project, total contract value, commencement date and completion date of the project, client name and contact information, consultants name and their contact information, contractor name and contact information, amount of Liquidated and ascertained damages, project duration and amount of minimum allowable progress claim at one time by contractor (if applicable).

2. Project Brief
Shall contain brief description of the project such as the scope of work, quantity of works, standard and requirement to be adhere to for by the project, start and completion date of the project.

3. Project Locality and Site utilization plan
In this section either some narrative work to be included such as description on how to reach the project site, distance from the nearest center of the town and etc. However Most of the Project Quality Plan will insert the Locality plan showing the location of the project site and the site utilization plan which shows the location of important structure for the construction purpose such as site office, site accommodation, working yard, Laboratory, Machinery yard, Storage area and any other structures that deem to be important in order to enable a smooth construction works to take place.

4. Work Program
It is a must in a compiled "Project Quality Plan" to be inserted with a Master Work Program. The purpose of the work program is to help contractor, client and client representative to monitor the progress of the project. Work program shall be established in such a way that it shows all related activities in correct sequence and dependency. It shall include also the Critical path of the project.

5. Project Organisation Chart
Project Organisation chart shall consist of all key personnel that involved in the project. It is always preferable to have an organisation chart base on the Hierarchy shall include the post, the name and the contact number of each top key personnel. With the hierarchy technic, indirectly it show the line of communication.

6. Job Description
In Project Quality Plan, all Top Personnel post have to be clearly describe. This is to ensure that person/s who read the PQP Understand the authority of each top personnel engaged for the project. Among top post are Construction manager, Project Manager, Quality Assurance & Quality Control Manager, Engineers and ect.

7. Inspection and Test Plan
Usually being inserted in a tabulated format. Normally will contain the type of work, Type of test to be conducted, Frequency of test, Acceptance Criteria and related inspection and testing form to be use.

8. Procedure and testing method
The procedure shall describe when shall the request of inspection and testing shall be submitted and to whom it shall be address to.The procedure is either in flowchart format or in narrative format.

9.Quality Assurance & Quality control forms and records
All of related forms for the purposed of QAQC shall be included under this section. It's ranging from Site memo, Request for information, Request for inspection, Inspection Check list, Inspection Form, Non conformity Form, Approval Chit , Record of inspection form, Site instruction form and ect.

10. Construction work method statement
Any work method statement for the construction of any structure shall be inserted under this section.

Monday, October 3, 2016

construction cost estimation : Flexible pavement

Cost estimation for construction of flexible pavement is very important to enable a smooth construction activities in road constructions. In order to do cost estimation of Flexible pavement for road, there are numbers of important information that we need to know about the flexible pavement. Below are some of the important parameter required to enable the cost estimation.
1. Flexible pavement structure, dimension and quantity.
2. Construction material required
3. Construction Methodology or work method statement
4. Construction work duration 

General flexible pavement structure
(credit to Kontraktor Malaysia Facebook)
Construction Material for flexible pavement.
  1. Suitable soil (well compacted) for sub-grade
  2. Down Crusher Run ( Crush and well Graded Granite stone) for Flexible pavement Sub-base and base course
  3. Prime Coat
  4. Asphaltic concrete Binder Course (ACB)
  5. Tack coat
  6. Asphaltic Concrete Wearing Course (ACW)

Wednesday, December 11, 2013

Estimating construction works

Estimating construction cost is always a tedious task to do. No how it is, this process is the most important part of the work before contractor even decide to take the work or not. However it is always a good practice to do the estimation before commitment is make to any of the construction work.

Normally there is two type of conventional contract. The two type are Contract with Bill of Quantities and Lump Sum Contract. Regardless what type of contract that contractor are dealing with, the different is Lump Sum contract normally do not include the quantity in their document because regardless of the quantity, the price that contractor offered is count. This type of contract normally do not entertained any type of claim that involve the increase in any quantity unless it increment is substantially affecting the cost. Some country have their own set of rules that need to be adhere to in order t make such claims.

Referring to the topic today, Estimating Construction Works. In general I would like to say that the overall work cost consist of three(3) major structure. The structure is The Actual cost for the physical works, The Preliminaries and general and the third structure is profit margin.

The Actual cost. What does it meant? The Actual cost is the estimation on the cost that needed to build and complete the major scope of works. Lets say it is to build a guard house. To build the guard house what are the things that involve that without those item contractor will never be able to complete the works. There are four(4) major item that must be include in this estimation. The four(4) major items are Construction Materials, Plants and Machineries, Man powers and wastage. However, for the Plants and machineries and manpower it is always tied up to the duration that needed to construct the guard house. Apart from these, the materials is always govern by the quantity and the unit price. For a Lump sum Contract, contractor have to do their own Quantity take off exercise.

The second structure is The Preliminaries and General. Among the item that always fall under this category are:-
1. Insurances
2. Performance bond
3. Site office, transport provision for the superintending Officer and site store.
4. Electricity, Water and Telecommunication,
5. Cost for compliance to Local Authorities Regulations
6. Mobilisation and demobilisation
7. As-built drawings
8. Relocation of existing Services or properties
9. Reporting and meeting expenses
10. Any other item that is not necessary required to complete the works but needed to ensure the smooth flow of the whole works.

Normally under Lump sum Contract this structure is only describe as preliminaries and general as one item. Hence contractor need to do their own breakdown item in order to have a build up cost for this Preliminaries and general total cost.

The third Structure is The profit margin.This profit margin is depend on how much contractor want to make. out from the project.

There is lots of software out there that can expedite this cost estimation work.

Thursday, September 26, 2013


Work program is an important element in any Construction project. It is a document where it will become a guide for those involve in the project  on when to start and complete a particular project component or task. In actual fact work program is contractor plan on when to start the project and how we plan to complete the hole project. A project without work program, in other words, is a project without target and is about to fail. As the successful person always say “ FAILURE TO PLAN IS A PLAN TO FAIL”.

There is numbers of software that can be utilized to create a work program. Among them are Microsoft Projects, Primavera and  Agile project planning. However in this article, we will show how to create a work program by using MICROSOFT PROJECT. We are using MICROSOFT PROJECT 2010 VERSION (Trial Version Copy)
Microsoft project can be purchase on-line through Microsoft website.
How to create the work program using Microsoft Project?  Below is basic step to step.

Step 1:
Open your Microsoft project software. Below is how the Microsoft project look like.

Under Default display you will find there is eight (8) columns available. The column named as indicator, task, duration, start, finish, predecessor, resources and add new column.

 Step 2:
Set up the working time for your calendar. This can be done by clicking on the FILE tab.

A display like this will appear on your screen. Next, click the “OPTION” button on the display page.  A “Project option” will appear as below.

At this “Project Option” page, click the “schedule” button. It will bring you to the display as below.

On this page, you can start customized your working days, working hours and many more to suite your requirement. One you done with the option you can save your file under a name.
 Step 3:
Start inserting all of the scope of works that necessary to complete the whole project. To do this. Click on the “TASK” tab. The window is as below.

Inside the “Task Name” column, you can start type in ever task that is needed to complete the whole Project. Below is how the completed task looks like.

After finish key-in all the task. Now you can arrange the task into level.

Step 4:
Select the task that you want it to be a sub-task to the earlier task , then click the indent task icon to make it a sub-task.

Below is how the partially complete Work Program look like after the task being arrange into different level.

Step 5:
Insert the Duration for each of the task in the Duration column. Below how it look like after you insert the duration.

Step 6:

Insert your start date for the first task that you plan to become the first activity for the whole project. This first task should be a task that must start in order for the project to start.  The start date must be inserted in the Start column. Your finish date for the task will be automatically calculated by Microsoft project software. Your next subsequence task start and finish date will be calculated automatically after you insert the Predecessor for each of the Task.

Below is how your partially completed work program looks like.

Step 7:

For each task in your work program, insert the predecessor task number in the predecessor column.. Predecessor is a task that starts before this task. By doing this it will link the task to another task. Below is how the work program appears on your screen after you completed this step.

Now after this step 7, your already complete the whole scheduling works. This is already a complete work program. In actual on screen display you will see it like the picture below.

From the display, you can see on your right, there is bar chart for each of the task and it is link to another task. This chart show how each of the task link to another or in another word sequence of each task. The arrow from one bar to another bar is showing the sequence of the task which automatically generated when you key-in each of the predecessor for each of the task. This chart is called Gantt chart.

In real construction project there is lot of task involve in order for contractor to complete the whole project. In this situation we need to identify which is the longest sequence of task that will be critical in the project. In other words, if one of the task is delayed it will delayed the whole project. How to Identify it by using Microsoft Project Software. Read the step 8 below.
Step 8:

To identify the longest critical sequence of task in a project click the “FORMAT TAB”.

Under the “Format” word (as picture above), you can see the word “Critical task”, “Slack” and “Late Task”. Click the box next to the” Critical Task”.  It will automatically generate which sequence of work is Critical. This method is called “Critical Path Method”.

Once you are done with this action, it should display a series of red bar which these are the critical task that MUST NOT BE DELAYED IT START AND FINISHED DATE. Contractor needs to Start this these critical task as planned in the work program or you will not be able to complete the whole project as planned.

 The picture below is showing the Critical task of the project and also it is the Critical path for the whole project. Delaying either one of the task within this path resulted in delay in completion of the project.

Sunday, July 7, 2013


Road construction is a Simple construction works compare to building work. This is mainly due to the reasons that in road construction there is not so many component of works that need to be done.

The major component of the Roadworks are only as listed below.

1. Survey and setting Out.
2. Site clearing
3. Earthwork.
4. Preparation of the Sub-grade.
5. Sub-base
5. Road-Base
6. Laying of Binder course
7. Laying of Wearing course
8. Road marking.
9. Drainage works
10. Road furniture( Signage/Guardrail & etc.)
11. Road marking
12. Bridge (if required under contract)
13.Traffic Lights (if required under contract).

However for building works, there is lots of components that need to be done in order to complete a building. The major component works are as follows;

1. Survey and setting out
3.Piling works.
4.Foundation works.
5. Stump
6. Beam
7. Slab
11. Roof truss
12. Roofing
13. Internal cold water system
14. External water reticulation
15. Sewerage system
16. Internal electrical wiring System
17. External electrical wiring System.
18. Ventilation system
19. Finishing work ( Painting & Tiling )
20. Fencing & gate.
21. Door and windows.
22. Landscaping.
23. ect....

Building work consists of many trades compare to roadwork. For more detail list for the roadworks, please navigate here. This Roadworks scope of work list can be download for free.

Monday, July 1, 2013

Setting Out of Column Vertical Alignment

Column Vertical Alignment is very important in order to construct a straight vertical building. Now a days, setting out of the vertical alignment had been made easy with the advance technology such as leaser beam device. However in the event that the device that you are using is found faulty, do you know how to continue doing your work without the aid of that technology? In order for you to construct a true vertical column, the first thing that you need to get it right is the formwork itself

In view of this kind of situation, it is always good that we know the primitive way of doing it. All that you need are;
1. Measuring tape,
2. string,
3. timber and
4. Plumbob or heavy material that can pull the string straight (downward)

This primitive way does not even require any usage of Spirit Level.

All you need to do is assemble those. The picture below is how you need to assemble all that basic equipment as mention above. As mention earlier, to get a straight vertical column, first you need your formwork to set correctly. Hence from the picture shown, you can always replace the reinforce concrete column with your fabricated formwork. Once you get your vertical alignment correct, you can secure your formwork from moving. The same goes if you are installing timber type column.

How do you know that your column is vertically straight? What you need to know is the measurement of X1 is the same measurement for X2 and measurement for Y1 having the same measurement value as Y2.

Basic reinforce concrete beam formwork component.

Reinforce concrete structure when constructed using conventional method is as easy as industrial building system. The basic is always about Setting out, formwork, concreting work, bar bending work and installation of each of these component. All it takes is practice and practice until perfect. Below is picture of basic formwork component. All component are built with timber.





Thursday, March 1, 2012

Wan's Journal: Low Cost Technology

Wan's Journal: Low Cost Technology: Pile Driver , a photo by wanhashim on Flickr. This is my first time encountering this type of low cost technology to drive piles in its loc...

Pile Driver by wanhashim

This pile driver is either the modification of the steel structure type or the other way round. Regardless of the material that been used to assemble this machine, the main focus of this machine is due to its mobility. This machine can be dismantle and reassemble easily and is one of the most simple solution to the construction site with limited accessibility. However there is some limitation to this machine as what being describe in Wan's Journal. Usually this machine being use for timber piling works.

Thursday, April 7, 2011

Wan's Journal: Engineering Marvel of Japan's Highrise Building

Wan's Journal: Engineering Marvel of Japan's Highrise Building: "Earthquake resistance building design will sway without collapsing in the advent of a powerful earthquake. This video shows the marvel of su..."

Wednesday, November 18, 2009

Construction Technology : Industrial Building System ( IBS)

What is Industrial Building System ( IBS )? IBS is not a new technology in the construction industry. It has been there for years but we just not realised that some of the construction material that we are using are infact IBS.

There are advantage of building with IBS. Below are some of advantage that our construction industries especially contractors need to know.

1. Reduce construction Period.
2. The quality of product are properly monitor since the product of IBS are fabricate or manufactured in the factory.
3. Reduce wastage of construction material..
4. Increase the cleanliness of site.
5. In a long run , it help contractor to reduce cost of construction

The most valuable point is " Time = Value for Money "

Some of the IBS product are Ready fabricate Wall or partition Panel, Steel or Timber roof truss, Building Facade, Door and Window Frame, Column, Slab and beam. Bridge Girder also part of it.

In Some cases, where major structure building cannot being fabricate in factory due to transportation problem, the item under IBS that can be use is the Formwork. Formwork also called IBS if the formwork can be use over and over again and for more that one project. The type of formwork that we mentioned here are steel form work.

Sunday, October 4, 2009


Common Tender Estimation Mistake by Contractor.
Tender estimation is a very important area for a contractor in order to secure a contract. Their estimation must be very competitive to ensure that they will win in their bidding. However the common scenarios that repetitively happen among the tenderer are always as the following.
  1. The cheaper the construction cost, the higher their chances to secure a contract.
  2. Assumption always being done without visiting the actual site, thus they will not be able to provide a cost that is as accurate as needed to suite the site condition.
  3. Most of the time the contractor always by pass the standard condition of contract and also the special condition of contract which normally being include inside the tender document. Thus, as the result, they will only estimate base on what is inside the bill of quantity and the tender drawing. Usually inside the bill of quantity, there is an item listed as "other necessary work that deem to be necessary to complete the work ". This is where the special condition of contract, standard condition of contract, standard specification and special specification requirement should not being assume.
There are cases that there are some work deem to be necessary to complete the work that being shown in the tender drawing but it was not specifically being spell out in the bill of quantity that had cause the awarded contractor fail to price the cost to the particular work. As the result during construction this contractor have raised their concern over this issue of the particular work by mentioning that it was not included in the contract as it has not being listed out inside the bill of quantity. After a thorough study of the contract document, it was found out that there is a clause in the special condition of contract mentioning that if there is any necessary work that deem to be necessary to complete the project and had being shown in the tender drawing, contractor should price it under the item "necessary work to complete the job". Because of this clause, the contractor have to do the work out of his own expenses which the cost cannot be claim from the client as the variation or addition work. Therefore it is very important for contractor to properly study the tender document and the drawing in order to give a competitive tender price that will not become a deadly trap to their construction work.
All the illustration and scenarios above are not the only common mistake done in preparing the cost estimation for a tender but there are many other such as fail to know the market price, calculation error or even for the sake to penetrate the market. Hence in preparing the tender pricing, contractors need to look into all area that will affect the construction work.
Contractors, Good luck and best wishes for you.