Tuesday, September 26, 2017


In roads construction, there is numbers of testing that need to be conducted in order to fulfill the design requirement and also to achieve the quality of end product. Thus even basic knowledge of testing required for any of the executed work in the construction of roads is very important.

Before we proceed with type of test that need to be performed during the construction period, here is the major works that in general will take place along the construction period.

1. Site preparation.
During the site preparation stage, among the sub activities involve are Boundary survey, existing ground level survey, Land clearing, Grubbing, preparation of temporary access, Offices and accommodations,

All those activities does not need any testing. However joint inspection between contractor and client is required.

2. Earthwork
Earthwork actually can be divided into two (2) main work category. The categories are "Cut" and "Fill". In general practice, cutting activities is to form slopes as per construction drawings and to bring down the existing ground level to designed platform level. The cut earth from cutting activities then can be utilized as fill material for "fill" or "embankment" works. Under the "cut" activities, normally there is no testing required but joint inspection need to be conduct to ensure the proposed level and slope formation is in accordance with the construction drawings.

As for fill works there is steps need to be follows. Standard practice will required that the filling work need to be done in layer that is not more than 300mm thick.However the thickness of the layer is also subject to the capacity of the compactor used to achieve the desired degree of compaction. Prior to filling activity, all proposed fill material need to be sampled and tested to ensure its suitability and conformance towards design parameter for the embankment .

3. Pavement & Road Shoulder
The pavement it self are consist of Subgrade, Subbase, Roadbase, Asphaltic Concrete Binder Course (ACB) and Asphaltic Concrete Wearing Course (ACW). Each of these works have their own degree of acceptance base on the design specification. As such, Laying of each of the element need to follow a proper work method statement which had been approved by the Superintending Officer in order to achieve the required quality.

4. Road Furniture & Signages
Among the components of the road furniture are guardrails, road lining or also named as road marking, Road kerb, road reflector or sometimes called as "cat eye". Where as for signage's, it can range from the safety sign for road user such as speed limit signages to the name of any junction along the road. Some of the road project will also include the  chainage marker of the road.

5. Drainage system
Normal road construction will always have the roadside drain. It can be earth type or reinforce concrete type. Apart from the road side drain, at any embankment area or slope, it will involve the construction of "toe drain", Bench or berm drain, "foul drain" and also "interceptor drain". For the "interceptor drain"and "foul drain" normally it is designed as concrete cascade drain.

6. Electrical Works
Under  the electrical scope of works, the major works will be the street lighting and also traffic lights (if any depends on the road design and location of the constructed road). 

Monday, April 10, 2017

Project Quality Plan (PQP)

Project Quality Plan is a quality control manual that describe how the quality control of the construction works is going to be executed. Since it is a manual that going to be a reference document all of the construction personnel especially the top management, the content of the manual shall be able to covered all aspect of the quality control task.

As written earlier in the article "Quality Control in Construction works" , the content shall consist of the followings but not limited to the list below.

Section A : General Information
A1. Project information
A2. Project brief,
A3. Project locality and site utilization plan,
A4. Work program
A5. Quality control Organisation Chart
A6. Job Description

Section B: Document Control
B1: Document control Procedure

Section C : Quality Control
C1. Inspection and test plan
C2. Procedure and method of Inspection and testing
C3. Quality assurance and quality control forms and records
C4. Construction work method statement

1. Project Information
Project information and project brief shall describe the general information of the project such as title of the project, total contract value, commencement date and completion date of the project, client name and contact information, consultants name and their contact information, contractor name and contact information, amount of Liquidated and ascertained damages, project duration and amount of minimum allowable progress claim at one time by contractor (if applicable).

2. Project Brief
Shall contain brief description of the project such as the scope of work, quantity of works, standard and requirement to be adhere to for by the project, start and completion date of the project.

3. Project Locality and Site utilization plan
In this section either some narrative work to be included such as description on how to reach the project site, distance from the nearest center of the town and etc. However Most of the Project Quality Plan will insert the Locality plan showing the location of the project site and the site utilization plan which shows the location of important structure for the construction purpose such as site office, site accommodation, working yard, Laboratory, Machinery yard, Storage area and any other structures that deem to be important in order to enable a smooth construction works to take place.

4. Work Program
It is a must in a compiled "Project Quality Plan" to be inserted with a Master Work Program. The purpose of the work program is to help contractor, client and client representative to monitor the progress of the project. Work program shall be established in such a way that it shows all related activities in correct sequence and dependency. It shall include also the Critical path of the project.

5. Project Organisation Chart
Project Organisation chart shall consist of all key personnel that involved in the project. It is always preferable to have an organisation chart base on the Hierarchy Technic.it shall include the post, the name and the contact number of each top key personnel. With the hierarchy technic, indirectly it show the line of communication.

6. Job Description
In Project Quality Plan, all Top Personnel post have to be clearly describe. This is to ensure that person/s who read the PQP Understand the authority of each top personnel engaged for the project. Among top post are Construction manager, Project Manager, Quality Assurance & Quality Control Manager, Engineers and ect.

7. Inspection and Test Plan
Usually being inserted in a tabulated format. Normally will contain the type of work, Type of test to be conducted, Frequency of test, Acceptance Criteria and related inspection and testing form to be use.

8. Procedure and testing method
The procedure shall describe when shall the request of inspection and testing shall be submitted and to whom it shall be address to.The procedure is either in flowchart format or in narrative format.

9.Quality Assurance & Quality control forms and records
All of related forms for the purposed of QAQC shall be included under this section. It's ranging from Site memo, Request for information, Request for inspection, Inspection Check list, Inspection Form, Non conformity Form, Approval Chit , Record of inspection form, Site instruction form and ect.

10. Construction work method statement
Any work method statement for the construction of any structure shall be inserted under this section.

Monday, April 3, 2017


A successful construction is a completed project that being delivered to client by contractor which fulfil the contract specification and requirement, the stipulated time frame given as per contract, economic and of course meet the contractor profit margin.

The key to the successful project is lies in the ability of all parties to execute a good project management which requires all parties to have a practical and effective project organisation, effective project planning and tracking, effective procurement team, effective physical construction team and effective quality control team.

As the subject of this article, "Quality control in construction work", there is a few area  that need to be emphasised in order to assure all parties that the quality management is practical and effective. To begin with this quality control, it is always being a good practice to set-up a quality control organisation which need to be documented and understood by all all relevant personnel. in other words, the "Project quality plan".

All thing that required in order to have a good and well plan quality control shall be documented and compile in a manual name as "project quality plan". Among those items are namely as the following list.

1. Project brief,
2. Project locality and site utilisation plan,
3. Work program
4. Quality control Organisation Chart
5. Job Description
6. Inspection and test plan
7. Procedure and method of Inspection and testing
8. Quality assurance and quality control forms
9. Construction method statement

However the content of the "Project Quality Plan" is not limited to those listed items. The "Quality Control" in principal is divided into three stages that is planning stage, Executions and monitoring and the last stage is to analysed the outcome of the plan to ensure the effectiveness.