Tuesday, September 26, 2017

PROJECT QUALITY PLAN : MAJOR CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES FOR ROAD PROJECTS

In roads construction, there is numbers of testing that need to be conducted in order to fulfill the design requirement and also to achieve the quality of end product. Thus even basic knowledge of testing required for any of the executed work in the construction of roads is very important.

Before we proceed with type of test that need to be performed during the construction period, here is the major works that in general will take place along the construction period.

1. Site preparation.
During the site preparation stage, among the sub activities involve are Boundary survey, existing ground level survey, Land clearing, Grubbing, preparation of temporary access, Offices and accommodations,

All those activities does not need any testing. However joint inspection between contractor and client is required.

2. Earthwork
Earthwork actually can be divided into two (2) main work category. The categories are "Cut" and "Fill". In general practice, cutting activities is to form slopes as per construction drawings and to bring down the existing ground level to designed platform level. The cut earth from cutting activities then can be utilized as fill material for "fill" or "embankment" works. Under the "cut" activities, normally there is no testing required but joint inspection need to be conduct to ensure the proposed level and slope formation is in accordance with the construction drawings.

As for fill works there is steps need to be follows. Standard practice will required that the filling work need to be done in layer that is not more than 300mm thick.However the thickness of the layer is also subject to the capacity of the compactor used to achieve the desired degree of compaction. Prior to filling activity, all proposed fill material need to be sampled and tested to ensure its suitability and conformance towards design parameter for the embankment .

3. Pavement & Road Shoulder
The pavement it self are consist of Subgrade, Subbase, Roadbase, Asphaltic Concrete Binder Course (ACB) and Asphaltic Concrete Wearing Course (ACW). Each of these works have their own degree of acceptance base on the design specification. As such, Laying of each of the element need to follow a proper work method statement which had been approved by the Superintending Officer in order to achieve the required quality.

4. Road Furniture & Signages
Among the components of the road furniture are guardrails, road lining or also named as road marking, Road kerb, road reflector or sometimes called as "cat eye". Where as for signage's, it can range from the safety sign for road user such as speed limit signages to the name of any junction along the road. Some of the road project will also include the  chainage marker of the road.

5. Drainage system
Normal road construction will always have the roadside drain. It can be earth type or reinforce concrete type. Apart from the road side drain, at any embankment area or slope, it will involve the construction of "toe drain", Bench or berm drain, "foul drain" and also "interceptor drain". For the "interceptor drain"and "foul drain" normally it is designed as concrete cascade drain.

6. Electrical Works
Under  the electrical scope of works, the major works will be the street lighting and also traffic lights (if any depends on the road design and location of the constructed road). 

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