Showing posts with label EDUCATION. Show all posts
Showing posts with label EDUCATION. Show all posts

Monday, April 10, 2017

Project Quality Plan (PQP)

Project Quality Plan is a quality control manual that describe how the quality control of the construction works is going to be executed. Since it is a manual that going to be a reference document all of the construction personnel especially the top management, the content of the manual shall be able to covered all aspect of the quality control task.

As written earlier in the article "Quality Control in Construction works" , the content shall consist of the followings but not limited to the list below.

Section A : General Information
A1. Project information
A2. Project brief,
A3. Project locality and site utilization plan,
A4. Work program
A5. Quality control Organisation Chart
A6. Job Description

Section B: Document Control
B1: Document control Procedure

Section C : Quality Control
C1. Inspection and test plan
C2. Procedure and method of Inspection and testing
C3. Quality assurance and quality control forms and records
C4. Construction work method statement

1. Project Information
Project information and project brief shall describe the general information of the project such as title of the project, total contract value, commencement date and completion date of the project, client name and contact information, consultants name and their contact information, contractor name and contact information, amount of Liquidated and ascertained damages, project duration and amount of minimum allowable progress claim at one time by contractor (if applicable).

2. Project Brief
Shall contain brief description of the project such as the scope of work, quantity of works, standard and requirement to be adhere to for by the project, start and completion date of the project.

3. Project Locality and Site utilization plan
In this section either some narrative work to be included such as description on how to reach the project site, distance from the nearest center of the town and etc. However Most of the Project Quality Plan will insert the Locality plan showing the location of the project site and the site utilization plan which shows the location of important structure for the construction purpose such as site office, site accommodation, working yard, Laboratory, Machinery yard, Storage area and any other structures that deem to be important in order to enable a smooth construction works to take place.

4. Work Program
It is a must in a compiled "Project Quality Plan" to be inserted with a Master Work Program. The purpose of the work program is to help contractor, client and client representative to monitor the progress of the project. Work program shall be established in such a way that it shows all related activities in correct sequence and dependency. It shall include also the Critical path of the project.

5. Project Organisation Chart
Project Organisation chart shall consist of all key personnel that involved in the project. It is always preferable to have an organisation chart base on the Hierarchy shall include the post, the name and the contact number of each top key personnel. With the hierarchy technic, indirectly it show the line of communication.

6. Job Description
In Project Quality Plan, all Top Personnel post have to be clearly describe. This is to ensure that person/s who read the PQP Understand the authority of each top personnel engaged for the project. Among top post are Construction manager, Project Manager, Quality Assurance & Quality Control Manager, Engineers and ect.

7. Inspection and Test Plan
Usually being inserted in a tabulated format. Normally will contain the type of work, Type of test to be conducted, Frequency of test, Acceptance Criteria and related inspection and testing form to be use.

8. Procedure and testing method
The procedure shall describe when shall the request of inspection and testing shall be submitted and to whom it shall be address to.The procedure is either in flowchart format or in narrative format.

9.Quality Assurance & Quality control forms and records
All of related forms for the purposed of QAQC shall be included under this section. It's ranging from Site memo, Request for information, Request for inspection, Inspection Check list, Inspection Form, Non conformity Form, Approval Chit , Record of inspection form, Site instruction form and ect.

10. Construction work method statement
Any work method statement for the construction of any structure shall be inserted under this section.

Monday, April 3, 2017


A successful construction is a completed project that being delivered to client by contractor which fulfil the contract specification and requirement, the stipulated time frame given as per contract, economic and of course meet the contractor profit margin.

The key to the successful project is lies in the ability of all parties to execute a good project management which requires all parties to have a practical and effective project organisation, effective project planning and tracking, effective procurement team, effective physical construction team and effective quality control team.

As the subject of this article, "Quality control in construction work", there is a few area  that need to be emphasised in order to assure all parties that the quality management is practical and effective. To begin with this quality control, it is always being a good practice to set-up a quality control organisation which need to be documented and understood by all all relevant personnel. in other words, the "Project quality plan".

All thing that required in order to have a good and well plan quality control shall be documented and compile in a manual name as "project quality plan". Among those items are namely as the following list.

1. Project brief,
2. Project locality and site utilisation plan,
3. Work program
4. Quality control Organisation Chart
5. Job Description
6. Inspection and test plan
7. Procedure and method of Inspection and testing
8. Quality assurance and quality control forms
9. Construction method statement

However the content of the "Project Quality Plan" is not limited to those listed items. The "Quality Control" in principal is divided into three stages that is planning stage, Executions and monitoring and the last stage is to analysed the outcome of the plan to ensure the effectiveness.  

Tuesday, December 13, 2016

Document control in construction management

Document control is part and parcel of the important area for construction personnel to look into. The important of this are to help every party involved in a particular construction work get the right information at the right time and it help protecting interest of every party.

Due to the heavy work load personnel tend to be distracted from performing a proper document control. For example, there is important documentation that already being distributed to respective personnel, however the sender had overlook on the acknowledge receipt of the document. Thus if there will be an issue arise mentioned that the document was not received or the sender have not do the submission yet, then the sender will having problem to proof that he actually had distribute that particular document.

Looking at the scenario above, this can indirectly affecting the smooth progress of the project. The document might be needed for the purposed of material approval, notice, application of extension of time or progress claim or design change. When this issue of document control become so critical it will start affecting the completion of the construction work. Some of the issue might have to be solved at arbitration level.

For the sake of a well manage construction works and meeting the goal of any construction project, document control should not be taken lightly. I have to be part of the construction procedure. Regardless how it supposed to be carried out, whether by incorporate any document control software or conventional method, Document Control Have To Be Executed in such a manner which will have a positive impact on the project or construction works.

Monday, October 3, 2016

construction cost estimation : Flexible pavement

Cost estimation for construction of flexible pavement is very important to enable a smooth construction activities in road constructions. In order to do cost estimation of Flexible pavement for road, there are numbers of important information that we need to know about the flexible pavement. Below are some of the important parameter required to enable the cost estimation.
1. Flexible pavement structure, dimension and quantity.
2. Construction material required
3. Construction Methodology or work method statement
4. Construction work duration 

General flexible pavement structure
(credit to Kontraktor Malaysia Facebook)
Construction Material for flexible pavement.
  1. Suitable soil (well compacted) for sub-grade
  2. Down Crusher Run ( Crush and well Graded Granite stone) for Flexible pavement Sub-base and base course
  3. Prime Coat
  4. Asphaltic concrete Binder Course (ACB)
  5. Tack coat
  6. Asphaltic Concrete Wearing Course (ACW)

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Estimating construction rate per unit of work

Competitive tendered price is one of the greatest factor to win a construction project. However in any business, one of the main factor is to make money. This is true and also applied to construction industry. Therefore winning a project is just a small portion of construction business but be able to secure and deliver projects within the budget is the main agenda of construction business.


The answer is knowing how to estimate and doing the breakdown of the BUILT-UP RATE PER UNIT OF WORK.

Building the rate is in theoretically knowing the cost of every single item or component that involved in order to deliver the end product. In general these are some of the item that need to be include while estimating rate per unit work or product.

(1). Cost of the construction material
(2). Cost of the Logistic or transportation
(3). Labor cost
(4). Machinery cost
(5). Allow cost for wastage of material

Each of the item, from item no. (1) to item no. (5) need some simple calculation and have to be present into "per unit rate". It is then sum-up to create the cost of construction of a unit product.The next procedure is to apply item no.(6) into the sum-up cost.

For example if the cost of construction of a unit product is "W" and targeted profit margin is "Y%", the profit will be "W" X "Y%". let say that the outcome of this calculation is "Z". Hence the built-Up rate is the sum of "W" + "Z"

Item (1) + (2) + (3) + (4) + (5) = W
Profit Margin = Y %
Profit = W x Y% =  Z
Built-Up rate per unit product = W + Z

Built-up rate offered MUST inclusive of PROFIT and Construction Cost.

Tuesday, December 1, 2015

Traffic Management in road construction

Traffic management is part and partial of road construction that must be look into. Even though it do not contribute to any of the road construction it self but it does  affect the progress of the work. Traffic management become very significant if the construction site is within the existing road. As we all know existing road is road that already open to public.Thus there will be moving vehicle every now and then. We certainly do not want to see any accident occur during construction period which involve our site. Therefore a safe and practical traffic management plan must be in place.

Some of the normal measures and tools that we applied during construction work are:-

1. Provide flagmen at both end of our construction site and equip them with and Personal Protective equipment and communication tools, such as walkie talkie to enable the to guide the existing traffic efficiently.

2. Erecting some warning sign along the existing road to inform public in advance before they reach the construction area.

3. Provide detour sign if the existing traffic need to be redirect into our temporary road.

4. Erect safety barrier along the construction site to prevent existing traffic entry into our work place

5. Install "blinker" before and along the construction site to provide warning sign that public user of the existing road is approaching construction site or they are driving just adjacent to the construction site.

6. Publish construction work notice on newspapers or main stream media to alert public or road user on the coming or ongoing construction work along the road.

7. Periodic monitoring and maintain all safety and warning sign that had been installed to ensure that it is in good and practical condition.

All of the above but not limited to the listed planed safety measures in this article shall follow the minimum standard of traffic management plan required by the authority.

Traffic Management can save life, time and money.

Wednesday, March 5, 2014

How to Create A Work program with Microsoft Excel version 2010

Creating a simple work program and display it as a Bar chat is relative cheap. This can be done by doing it with Microsoft Excel. However It is very tough to display the critical path and it seems to be impossible to show the logic link between bars. Another disadvantage of this is that it might only practical and applicable to a small scale project that having not more than ten (10) activities. It is due to the complexity of the process in creating the bar chart and it is very time consuming. Below are free step by step guidance to produce a simple work program using Microsoft Excel.

Step 1.
 Open the Microsoft Excel Program and create table as picture below (table can be customized according to what information you want to display.

Step 2:
Insert your the task in the task column and task ID  in the ID column and arrange it according to level of work or in words it shall be the work breakdown code.

Step 3:
Set the DURATION column by highlighting the column and right click. The dialogue box will appear. from the dialogue box, select "format cell". I should appear like picture below.

After selecting the "format Cells", a dialogue box will appear as below.

 Now Under category, Select Number. I set the decimal point to "0" decimal places. then click OK.

Step 4:
Now start Insert Number of duration. See the following Picture.

Step 5:
In this stage or step 5, for column level as " Start " and " finish", highlight both column, Right click and select " Format cells", a dialogue will appear and under the " Category" select Date and set the " date format". See picture below.

Step 6:
After you select your date format which is shown under the "type" tab. Click "OK". Than Start by inserting the start date as per sequence of work. As a guide you can fill the sequence number base on the ID into the "Predecessor" and "Successor Column". Picture below.

For the "Start", "Finish", "Predecessor" and "Successor" column, If you are familiar with Excel Function or Formula, it is better to use the features since with that Features you can easily create links between cells. Or else you will have to fill and calculate it manually.

Step 7:
Next step is to group task under a major task. To do this, First select "Data Tab". See Picture Below.
Then, identify which is the major task. Next highlight the "Rows" which represent minor tasks that form the major task. Picture Below
 After Highlighting the minor task, Click on the " Group" Icon under " Data Tab". It will automatically display the Sheet Like picture below.
The finish product is as picture below.

After you fill in all the data you needed in the table. It is now we can start to create the " Bar Chart".

Step 8

To create the “bar Chart” , First highlight the Row and column that contained the “ Task”, “Duration”, “start” and “Finish”. Next, Click on the “Insert tab” , then go to “ bar”  then click the icon “ Stacked Bar”. See picture below.

Once you click on the icon “ Staked Bar”, a Bar chart will automatically appear in your work Sheet. It shall look like the picture below.

Step 9:
Next, in the Start and finish Column, Identified the Earliest date to start work. Right Click on that cell, then click “ format cell”. A dialogue box like below will appear.

Inside the dialogue box, under category, click on “number”. Once you click on the “number”, under the sample, you will see a set of number. In this example the number is  41703.00. This number is actually represent the date of 05/03/2014. See picture below. Write down this number on a piece of paper. After you done with this step, Click the “cancel” tab. The dialogue box will close by itself. Next, do the same thing to the last date which you are going to complete your work or task. You will need those number to customized the date axis range on your chart later on.

Step 10.

Right Click on the “X” axis and then Click “ format axis”. Refer to picture below.

After you click the “format axis” a dialogue box will appear as below.

Inside the axis option check the minimum value to fixed and insert the number for start date which you write down earlier  in step 9. Do the same for maximum Value but inset the number which will represent the last completion date of the work.

Still on the dialogue box, click on the number, then go to the category And choose “ date” and choose the date format type which you want to display on your chart. After that step, you can choose the alignment tab in the dialogue box to align the position of your date. See Picture below.

One you done with it, click “Close”. Your Chart Should appear like this.

Step 11
Right click on the “Y” Axis and click Format Axis. A dialogue box like below will appear.

Inside this dialogue box, look for the “ Category in reverse order”.  “Checked “ the box and next Close the dialogue. Your chart should be displayed as below.

Step 12
In the Chart, Right click in between two bars. Then Click “select data” . See picture below.

One you had click on the “select data” a dialogue box as below will appear.

Click on the “Duration” follow by clicking on the “move down” button. This will change the position of your “Duration”.  Once you done with that, Click “ OK” tab. It will close the Dialogue box. This action will make your Chart look as this following picture.

Step 13
Still on the chart. Right Click on any of the green bar. 

Then, click on the “fill colour” icon. Picture below.

Choose the “no fill” . Your chart should be as follows.

Repeat this step 13 but now do the same for the bar that is “red” in colour.The end product for this step  shall be displayed as below.

Step 14
Now identify the “Critical Path” and recoloured it into red. You should have a Bar chart as below.

Step 15
If you want to show both “ Start” and “ Finish” date, Click on the bars that represent the “Start” bar
 (already recoloured with no fill in step 13),then click the “ Add data level’. 

Your chart will look like this.

Now the start date had been inserted. However the date been displayed and overlap with other information. We don’t want this display. Hence we need to re format the “ X “ axis. To Do That we need to change the Minimum Value and the maximum value of “X” Axis. See the pictures below.  For Minimum value, entered value that is less than 41703 and for Maximum Value entered number greater than 41848.

Next, for the “finish date” do the same procedure as what had been done for “ Start Date”  but for  “ the Finish date” click on the “finish Bar” which had been recoloured earlier with “No Fill”. Your end product shall be displayed as follow.

Basically, Your work program created with Microsoft Excel is now completed. However  for a better presentation of Your  Bar Chart, you Can present it as Chart on its own or you can rearrange is such a way  to be display with full description.

a) Bar Chart represent the work program  on its own.

b) Work program with full description.

Congratulation. You just finish creating the work program by using Microsoft Excel.

Monday, October 14, 2013

Critical Path Method in project scheduling.

Critical path is an important element in project scheduling. Every scheduler or planner officer need to identify which is the task(s) that will form the critical path of the project. Critical path always consist of series of task or work that must not be delayed, start or commencement date and must finish on a fixed date. If there is any delay occurred in commencement of any task or work that form a critical path, then there is very high possibilities that the project going to be delay in completion. When this situation happened, contractor will have to plan for a catch-up program to make sure that the project can be completed with-in the approved construction period. However in this section we will not discussing on the catch-up program or plan.

How to determine the critical path of a project? In actual fact, regardless of what scheduling software that planner(s) officer or Scheduler(s) officer used to produce a work program or work plan for a project, the basic theory of the Critical path calculation is always the same for any brand of project scheduling software.

There are two types of critical path calculation that can be used to identify a critical path. The two types of calculation are Forward pass calculation and Backward Pass calculation.

Forward pass calculation can be used to determine when or on what date a project can be completed. The calculation will start from the beginning of the project and at the end we will be able to know when a project can be completed with estimated numbers of resources that available.

Backward pass calculation can be used when we are given a fixed date on when to complete a project. This method always required us to analyze the availability of our resources and their output in order to complete the project as required. By knowing our capacity of resources we will be able to estimate the duration required to complete each and single task of a project. With this information than we start the calculation from the given finished date and we will know the latest date we must start our work which normally known as late start.

Theoretically, Critical path will always having the same figure for the early start and the late start. Thus there is no number of floating days allow. Mathematically the float day is equal to “0”. All series of task or works that have no float days or “0” floating days will fall in a critical path of a project.

Friday, February 22, 2013

How to estimate earthwork construction period.

How to estimate the duration required to complete Earthwork Excavation? Estimation on the numbers of days required to complete the task by utilisation of machinery does not required complex calculation. All it take is simple mathematics and some knowledge on the efficiency of  machine capability.  Below is an example of the calculation.

1. Quantity of the Earthwork Excavation = 1000 cu.m.
2. The machinery needed = Excavator and Lorries 
     Assumption : 1 no. of Excavator and 1 no. of lorry required.
                        : Excavator need 3 minutes to make a cycle of excavation works.
                        : Excavator Capacity = 1.5 cu.m
                        : Lorries capacity =  10 ton
                        : Lorry need 5 minutes to make a cycle of transportation.
                        : Specific Gravity of the earth = 2.7

Base on the assumption, the calculation is as follows;
         a) Duration required to fill a 10 ton lorry 
              : 10 ton lorry bucket capacity = 10/2.7 = 3.7 cu.m
              : cycle require to fill the lorry bucket = 3.7/1.5 = 2.4666 Cycle or 3 cycle.
              : hence, time required for filling the lorry = 3 cycle X 3 minutes = 9 minutes

         b) Duration required for lorry to complete a cycle of transporting and unloading =5 minutes
              : Therefore total  time taken for one cycle of earthwork = 9 minutes + 5 minutes = 14 minutes.
              : 14 minutes is required to complete 3.7 cu.m of earthwork.

         c) Duration required to complete 1000 cu.m earthwork;
             : 1000 cu.m / 3.7 cu.m = 270.27 cycle = 271 cycle.
             : hence, time require to complete 1000 cu.m earthwork = 271 cycle X 14 Minutes = 3794 minutes
         d) Number of working hours per day = 8 hours
         e) Convert the Duration in minutes into days;
             : 3794/ (8 X 60) = 7 days.

Therefore total number of days to complete the 1000 cu.m of earthwork (cutting and cart away for a short distance) by utilised 1 number of excavator and 1 number of 10 ton lorry is 7 days. Hence your construction period is only 7 days. However this example is excluding number of unworkable day due to rain.

If the number of lorry is going to be increase to 2 then some correction can be make to the duration required to complete the whole cycle by by 5 minutes. this is because the waiting time for the excavator can be reduce by 2.5 minutes each for both lorry. Therefore the complete cycle can be consider as 9 minutes only.

With this free example hope that you will have nice time to plan for your earthwork construction.

Tuesday, December 11, 2012


Hai All. This week I am making internal audit for a firm under provision of "Construction Management Services in civil, Building & Infrastructure works". Great..The Quality Management System (QMS) Manual was nicely in place and fullfill all the ISO 9001:2008 requirements. Procedure and processes to achieve their goal all had been properly documented and followed. The question here is how do they can loose so much in a project !!!!!!. It cause millions.

It is no body fault. That is construction. After a light conversation with the owner, I realise Who is the culprit behind all the event that make them lost so much. Here is it.


Project planning( Click this to purchase at Amazon) had failed.
The project had been awarded, However they could not start the construction due to le land accusation problem.

The above issue was only resolve almost a year after the contract awarded. Cost increase.

Project Pricing.
Pricing was done and accepted however there is no clause allow for price fluctuation variation order. From tendering until start work, it take almost two years!!! market price for almost all construction material had increase and the worst part is it goes up above their pricing. It is not contractor fault. They had include such situation in their budget but they still get beaten.

Service provider.
Their main service provider had pull out from that project to avoid the losses. They pull out without making any profit. They make such a loss in form of had not been able to captured other opportunity to make money  from other project. They don't dare to take the opportunity due to the reason that the project they had committed to is a mega project to them. Hence they can't wait any longer and decide to give up the project.

The firm decision.
To continue with the project no matter what it takes. They cannot pull out because of legal implication on them. They will be blacklisted!!!!!....They had to proceed with a lost.

Minimising the Lost.(Click this link to purchase)
Actively look for ways to minimise losses. Negotiating Skills required...!!!!!

Moral of the story.
1. Step back If you are not prepared to continue.
2. planning is a way to maximize your profit and ability.( Click here to buy).


Related Article in this blog :
Top Secret of successful construction project.
Project planning guide
Tendering Guide
Quality Documentation filing
Tendering : Evaluate your financial capacity
Construction tender bidding procedure and processes
Big money in Construction Industry
Making Money in Construction
How to reduce the construction cost
Winning a tender
Important of project Planning
How to bid and win any tender
Construction Management

Thursday, December 6, 2012

Top secret of successful construction project.

Being a contractor is always about making money by delivering projects to client. The question is, do you have a proper tool to make your dream come true?

Here is the secret.  Successful contractor always have this four Alphabets in his mind.

" P-D-C-A" which is stand for , P=Plan, D=Do, C=Check and A=Action.


As a contractor, in actual fact, all of them is doing the same thing. However the missing link is, this PDCA is always not documented properly and been compile into a manual. it is OK if all this PDCA work can be done alone by the owner of the firm but how about is this task is given to their staff ? For experience staff they might already have the idea on how to do it but it always not the case for newbies.

In view of this situation I attach herewith the link on part of the PDCA process. This process I name it PROJECT MONITORING PROCESS. it come together with how to monitor a project and what are the form that required in order to properly documenting the progress of a project. feel free to take a look on the list below.

Project monitoring process
Investigation form
project status review

Monday, December 3, 2012


What is the purpose of Project Planning? In actual fact Project planning shall begin as early in the tendering process. The purpose of doing a planning is:


Contractor that comply to the purpose above, no doubt that he/she will gain profit. In other words " planning is a tool that will guide contractor through out the construction process and to avoid any losses in term of money. As such the important document that a contractor shall have with him for every construction he/she undertake is Project Quality Plan (PQP). In this document there is guidance for his staff on site to do their works efficiently.

Wednesday, February 1, 2012

Pre-construction Meeting Agenda

Pre-construction meeting is the meeting that need to be conducted before any physical construction works started. Sometime this meeting being named as "Kick off meeting". Usually this meeting is to brief the contractor and consultants on the contract particular such as the official date of the site possession, the contract value, contract duration, the procedure of construction and contract and the do's and don't for the contract.

Below are the common agenda for the Pre-construction meeting.

1. Opening by the Chairman.
2. Contract Particular.
3. Introducing the construction team( Client, Consultant & Contractor )
4. Scope of work
5. Contractual requirement such as;
- Insurances
- Performance bond/Performance Guarantee
- Levy
- etc;
6. Line of Communication
7. Progress Claims and Payments
8. Requirement for Project Quality Plan
9. Requirement for Health and safety Plan
10. Environmental requirement (if any)
11. Monthly Progress reporting.
12. Other matters arising.

Construction Codes & Inspection Handbook

Writing Meeting Minutes and Agendas. Taking notes of meetings. Sample minutes and agendas, ideas for formats and templates. Minute taking training ... examples and exercises. (Easy 4 Me 2 Learn).

Saturday, October 8, 2011

Preliminaries work

Preliminaries work.
Preliminaries work is description that always being used in tender and contract documents. It consist of more than one work or things that is essential and without it the construction work will not be able to proceed. Below are list of preliminaries work normally being included in the tender and contract document.
1. CIDB Levy,
2. Insurances,
3. Performance Bond,
4. Site office for contractor,
5. Site office for Superintending officer and representative,
6. site clearing,
7. Mobilization and demobilization,
8. Temporary works,
10. Progress report, Quality assurance and Quality control report, Safety and health report.
11. Environment monitoring report.
12. Safety and health officer/supervisor,
13. Environmental consultant,
14.Safety and health protective equipment,
15.As-built drawings,
16.Statutory and regulatory requirement,
17.Transpotation services for S.O and S.O.R's
18.monthly Site meeting
19. Site clearing prior to completion.
20. others..


The item that is listed above is the normal preliminaries work in a tender or contract document.

Thursday, July 21, 2011


Have you ever been a broke down contractor?...
What does it mean with broke down contractor? it is very common that we here that contractor complaining that they cant bring some more construction material. this is not because that they do not have even a single sen but it merely because what they have is just enough to run the company. Most of the time construction payment is base on monthly or progressive payment certified by the client or their representative. However there is cases that after the evaluation and verification process after contractor submit their claim, contractor had being paid very late. some time they only received their payment after 3 months or even more. with this view, lets we make some calculation;
lets say, contract sum = $50M
construction period = 12months
Average (prorated) spending /months = $50M/12 = $4.167M
Hence total spending for 3 months = 3 X $4.167M =$12.5M
let say, Evaluation on work done take 2 weeks after progress claim submission.
therefore spending for 2 weeks =( $4.167/4weeks) X 2 weeks = $2.08M
The total spending from the date contractor submit their claim until they received their payment
will be;
=3 months spending + 2weeks spending = $12.5M + $2.08M = $ 14.58M
With that you have to fork out $14.58M!!!!!!!! its is a big sum of money.
Looking at this scenario, It is very important that a proper financial planning being carried out for every construction project.
This scenario is only for one project. what if you have 2 or even more project in hand !! It can be a deadly disaster...
Looking into this situation, if contractor is now well prepared with the financial planning when they are participating in a quotation or tender it will be a trap for your will be one of the broke down contractor or even a bankruptcy!!!!!!!!!!!!
Construction is not for those that are not prepared to be a broke down person.

Thursday, June 2, 2011



Component of Road Construction.
  1. Survey Works
    1a. Right of way or Boundary Survey
    1b. Road centreline (CL) Survey.
    1c. Road levelling survey ( Subgrade Level, Subbase Level, Roadbase Level,Finishing road level survey.
    1d. As built Survey.
    1e. Invert level for drain, Culvert
    1f. Slope formation survey.
  2. Site clearing.
  3. Stripping of top soil.
  4. Cutting and filling to form the subgrade level.
  5. Cutting to form the slope formation level.
  6. Laying of the Subbase with the approved material.
  7. Laying of the roadbase with approved aggregate.
  8. Spreading filler to top of roadbase.
  9. Sparying the prime coat on top of the roadbase.
  10. Laying of the Asphaltic Binder course.
  11. Laying of the Asphaltic Wearing Coarse.
  12. Construction of the drainage system, (Bench or berm drain,Toe Drain, Roadside drain)
  13. Piling works to drain, Culvert or bridge.

Testing required in road construction.
  1. Selection of material
  2. Compaction test.
  3. CBR test
  4. Makintosh probe testing
  5. Marshall test
  6. Cube test for concrete.